Quantum technology is not just your usual term in the world of science but has been seen to bring out meaningful solutions to real-world problems in the future. It has its influence over a vast arena of subjects ranging from the world of cryptocurrency to Artificial Intelligence. It has a greater significance and more enhanced capability than supercomputers.
What are Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Computing?
Quantum mechanics, a branch of physics, revolves around the physical features of atomic and subatomic particles. Quantum computing can be dated back to 1981 where the theoretical components were formulated and discussed for three days at the MIT Conference Center in Boston. The institutions of IBM and MIT funded the meeting and deliberation.
The difference with the present-day computers
Present-day computers are parts of classical computation. This is the very basis that forms the foundation of various devices such as smartphones, desktops, and laptops. Based on the formulae devised by Isaac Newton, classical computation processes involve deterministic bits having the observable states of 0 and 1. The formulae are perfect for the macroparticles, but when they are used to deal with smaller particles or molecules, specific problems start to surface. Wondering, why? Well, this is because the microparticles are not deterministic. Therefore, the range of 0 to 1 does not work anymore. The basic concept of Qubits emerges from this.
What are Qubits?
The smaller particles possess a wavy structure. When they are categorized in the group of Qubits, it implies that these do not have to exist in either 0 or -1 but can exist in both the states simultaneously. 0 or 1, i.e., the binary digit characterizes the deterministic state and is termed ‘bit.’ A bit has to exist either in 0 or 1, whereas the Qubit has no compulsion and particularity. The latter can exist in both forms and can be placed in both of these theoretically. Therefore, it can be comprehended that a qubit can store more data and carry quite a lot of information. It also has complete access to two states at the same time.
As the unit increases, the qubit power gets further enhanced. 2 bits can be generated by one Qubit. Similarly, 6 bits can be generated from 3 qubits. In stark contrast to the traditional computer system, quantum computers can process data with greater efficiency. No doubt, it will have a great future in the field of computing in the upcoming days.
The developers can quickly solve complicated problems related to computing by using quantum mechanic principles compared to traditional computing principles. So here is to disclosing another remarkable fact of Qubit that enhances its more significant role in the future all the more.
Importance of Quantum Computing
Quantum computing does not come with speculations. After all, it is a newer field of study and requires further intensive research before its principles are applied to practical purposes. However, once incorporated into research in varied areas, quantum computing will undoubtedly accelerate optimization. Cryptography will witness the most critical benefits of quantum computing. This is because quantum computers possess the ability to split open encryption algorithms at an increased pace, something that present-day computers will fail to do.
Even the wealthiest companies will find it hard to break quantum-level encryption as they then need to have their quantum solution. But there is always this problem with quantum hackers. These hackers form a part of the state-sponsored hacking groups constituted to hack into the government institutions’ private networks.
The supreme attributes of Quantum computers will also greatly benefit the realms of Artificial Intelligence or AI and Machine Learning or ML. As has been predicted that the AI will get stuck on a plateau due to the inefficiency of the present computer system, it is the quantum computing ability of data crunching that will be highly benefitting for the field of AI. No matter how complicated the mathematical problem is, quantum computing can quickly solve the problem and hardly take a few seconds. On the contrary, the present-day classical computers will take up about seven days to solve the same problem. So, you can interpret which one of these will play a predominant role in the future, right?
Another reason Quantum computers gaining the upper hand is because of their size. The traditional computer systems are quite bulky and take up a lot of space with their complicated CPU, GPU, and complex wire bundles. Sadly, its enormous size does not make it efficient enough to solve complex problems. But, on the other hand, even if the quantum computers take up the size of a refrigerator or wardrobe, it is justifiable for the complicated problems it solves within a few seconds. After all, an advanced electrical framework is necessary to solve complex issues.
Where is Quantum Computer used for real?
Well, if you’re wondering when and where quantum computers will be used, you need to know that it already exists and is used heavily by the tech giants of Google, IBM, and Fujitsu. In 1998, the first quantum computer had two qubits. The last recorded one was of 128 qubits, as has been recorded in 2018.
Though it cannot be said for sure when a consumer application is used, it is essential to mention that start-up enterprises say, D-Wave System, have planned to use a $200 million system akin to quantum computing. Most probably, it is expected that by 2030 quantum computing system will be used by average consumers.